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Plants list for a subtropical forest garden
Special focus: south-eastern Madagascar

Reclamation (pioneers)
(INV -may become invasive)

- Acacia angustissima (intercropping)
- Acacia crassicarpa
- Acacia leptocarpa
- Acacia mangium
- Acacia mearnsii (pioneering in grasslands, INV)
- Acacia senegal
- Albizia chinensis
- Albizia gummifera (prevents gulley erosion, mulch)
- Albizia procera (all soils)
- Albizia saman
- Albizzia lebbeck
- Cajanus cajan
- Calliandra calothyrsus
- Canarium madagascariensis
- Chamaecytisus palmensis
- Dalbergia sissoo
- Erythrina fusca
- Erythrina poeppigiana
- Faidherbia albida
- Flemingia macrophylla
- Gliricidia sepium
- Gmelina arborea
- Inga edulis
- Intsia bijuga (rises soil pH)
- Khaya madagascariensis
- Leucaena diversifolia
- Leucaena leucocephala (regrows vigorously)
- Pinus carribaea
- Pongamia pinnata
- Prosopis alba
- Prosopis glandulosa
- Prosopis juliflora (flour)
- Prosopis tamarugo (for salty lands, INV)
- Sesbania bispinosa
- Sesbania grandiflora
- Sesbania rostrata
- Sesbania sesban
- Terminalia mantaly
- Tipuana tipu
- Trema orientalis (fast growing, mulch)

Green manure
(NL - non-legume)

- Alfalfa (Lucerne)
- Buckwheat NL
- Cajanus cajan
- Cicer arietinum (Chickpea)
- Clover
- Crotalaria grahamiana
- Daikon radish (for compacted soils)
- Fava beans
- Hairy vetch
- Lablab
- Lathyrus sativus (Grass pea)
- Papago cowpeas
- Phacelia NL
- Phaselous vulgaris (Pinto beans)
- Sesbania bispinosa
- Sorghum NL
- Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea)
- Vigna unguiculata (Black-eyed peas)

Windbreak - pioneers
(more in Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Island and Multipurpose Windbreaks)

- Bambusa longispiculata
- Bambusa oldhami
- Bana grass (Pennisetum purpureum x americanum)
- Cajanus cajan
- Calliandra calothyrsus
- Dalbergia sissoo
- Elaeagnus spp.
- Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum)
- Flemingia macrophylla
- Gliricidia sepium
- Intsia bijuga
- Pongamia pinnata
- Prosopis juliflora (for drylands)
- Sesbania sesban
- Ziziphus spina-christi (for drylands)

Firebreak trees
(P - pioneer, W - windbreak)

- Acacia leucophloea P
- Acacia mangium P,W
- Acacia mearnsii P (soil improver, erosion control on slopes)
- Albizia procera P
- Arenga pinnata
- Artocarpus integer P,W
- Borassus aethiopum (palm, drylands)
- Chamaecytisus palmensis P
- Gliricidia sepium P,W
- Hagenia abyssinica (in the mountains)
- Leucaena leucocephala P
- Mangifera indica W
- Pentaclethra macroloba P
- Tamarindus indica W
- Tarchonanthus camphoratus P (essential oil is mosquito repellent, drylands)
- Toona ciliata P

Firebreak ground covers
- Agave
- Aloe
- Comfrey
- Dichondra repens
- Iceplant
- Ivy
- Onionweed
- Passionfruit
- Pumpkins
- Sunflower
- Sweet potato
- Taro
- Wandering jew
- Wormwood

Fruits
- Apricot (Prunus armeniaca)
- Avocado (Persea americana)
- Banana and plantain (Musa spp.)
- Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis)
- Carambola (Averrhoa carambola, starfruit)
- Ceriman (Monstera deliciosa)
- Cherimoya (Annona cherimola)
- Citron (Citrus medica)
- Custard apple (Annona squamosa)
- Date (Phoenix dactylifera - drylands)
- Dattock (Detarium senegalense)
- Eugenia jambolana
- Eugenia jambos
- Feijoa sellowiana
- Fig (Ficus carica)
- Gmelina arborea
- Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi)
- Grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi)
- Guava (Psidium guajava) INV
- Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis)
- Inga edulis
- Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus)
- Jambolin (Syzygium cumini)
- Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba)
- Kumquat (Fortunella spp.)
- Lemon (Citrus limon)
- Lime (Citrus aurantifolia)
- Litchi (Litchi chinensis)
- Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica)
- Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense)
- Mandarine (Citrus reticulata)
- Mango (Mangifera indica)
- Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana)
- Narannjilla (Solanum quitoense)
- Nectarine
- Noni (Morinda citrifolia)
- Papaya (Carica papaya)
- Passiflora incarnata
- Passiflora quadrangularis
- Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis)
- Peach (Prunus persica)
- Pineapple (Ananas comosus)
- Pomegranate (Punica granatum)
- Pomelo (Citrus maxima)
- Psidium cattleianum INV
- Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum)
- Rose apple (Syzygium jambos)
- Sour orange (Citrus aurantium)
- Surinam cherry (Eugenia uniflora)
- Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)
- Tamarind (Tamarindus indica)
- Uapaca kirkiana
- Uvilla (Pouroma cecriaefolia)
- Ziziphus mauritiana

Indigenous fruit trees of Madagascar
(Humid climate)

- Calopyxis spp. (Voamatavy)
- Carissa sessiliflora (Voatsikopika)
- Dilobeia thouarsii (Vivaona)
- Faucherea spp. (Vasihy)
- Ficus tiliifolia (Voara)
- Labramia costata (Todinga)
- Landolphia myrtifolia (Voaheny)
- Raphia ruffia (Raffia)
- Rheedia aphanophlebia (Vaomalambotaho)
- Salacia madagascariensis (Voamasoandro)
- Sorindea madagascariensis (Voasirindrina)
- Symphonia urophylla (Azinina)
- Treculia madagascarica (Ampalibeala)
- Uapaca spp. (Voapaka)
- Vangueria edulis (Vavandrika)

Leaf vegetable
- Gnetum gnemon
- Morinda citrifolia
- Moringa oleifera

Edible flowers
- Calendula
- Feijoa sellowiana
- Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus)
- Rosa rugosa
- Sesbania grandiflora

Nuts
- Almond (Prunus dulcis)
- Babassu palm (Osbignya phalerata oleifera)
- Bambara groundnut (Voandzeia subterranea - drylands)
- Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa)
- Cashew (Anacardium occidentale)
- Castanea sativa (semi-arid)
- Coconut (Cocos nucifera)
- Jeheb nut (Cordeauxia edulis - drylands)
- Macadamia integrifolia
- Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes)
- Pecan (Carya illinoensis)
- Pinus edulis (drylands)
- Pinus pinea
- Pistachio (Pistacia vera)
- Uapaca kirkiana

Root crops
- Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea)
- Cassava (Manihot esculenta)
- Cush- cush yam (Dioscorea trifida)
- Giant taro (Alocasia macrorrhiza)
- Ginger
- Greater yam (Dioscorea alata)
- Guinea yam (Dioscorea cayenensis)
- Lesser yam (Dioscorea esculenta)
- Mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum)
- Oca (Oxalis tuberosa)
- Potato (Solanum tuberosum)
- Potato yam (Dioscorea bulbifera)
- Queensland arrowroot (Canna edulis)
- Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas)
- Taro (Colocasia esculenta)
- Turmeric
- Ullucu (Ullucus tuberosus)
- Yac´┐Żn (Polymnia sonchifolia)

Oil
- Coconut (Cocos nucifera - butter, soap)
- Dikanut (Irvingia gabonensis)
- Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis)
- Olive (Olea europaea)

Lightning oil
- Pongamia pinnata (Derris indica, Pongam)

Alley cropping
- Acacia angustissima (with sweet potato)
- Acacia mearnsii (with potatoes in India)
- Acacia senegal (with millet, watermelon)
- Cajanus cajan (with cereals, oil seeds and other annual crops)
- Calliandra calothyrsus
- Erythrina fusca (with cassava, maize)
- Erythrina peoppigiana (with maize)
- Faidherbia albida (with maize)
- Flemingia macrophylla
- Gliricidia sepium (with maize)
- Gmelina arborea (with cassava, maize, yam and others)
- Inga edulis (with maize)
- Leucaena diversifolia ( K156 )
- Leucaena leucocephala (K636)
- Prosopis glandulosa (with in drylands, deep rooting)
- Prosopis juliflora
- Sesbania sesban (with maize)

Live fence
- Agave americana
- Bamboo spp.
- Carissa grandiflora
- Erythrina varegiata
- Flemingia macrophylla
- Gliricidia sepium
- Ziziphus mauritiana

Small inner hedge
- Calliandra calothyrsus
- Chamaecytisus palmensis
- Flemingia macrophylla
- Gliricidia sepium
- Gmelina arborea
- Moringa oleifera

Weed barriers
- Canna edulis
- Comfrey
- Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus)
- Sweet potato
- Vetiver grass

Mulch
- Albizia gummifera
- Beach hibiscus (Hibiscus tiliaceus)
- Cajanus cajan
- Calliandra calothyrsus
- Cocos nucifera
- Erythrina poeppigiana
- Flemingia macrophylla
- Gliricidia sepium
- Inga edulis
- Leucaena diversifolia
- Leucaena leucocephala
- Sesbania grandiflora
- Sesbania sesban
- Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea)
- Trema orientalis

Protection from salt spray
- Albizia lebbeck
- Araucaria heterophylla
- Barringtonia asiatica
- Calophyllum inophyllum
- Casuarina equisetifolia
- Cocos nucifera
- Cordia subcordata
- Delonix regia
- Erythrina variegata
- Ficus bengalensis
- Ficus benjamina
- Ficus tinctoria
- Gliricidia sepium
- Glochidion ramiflorum/spp.
- Guettarda speciosa
- Gyrocarpus americanus
- Hernandia nymphaeifolia
- Hibiscus tiliaceus
- Intsia bijuga
- Leucaena leucocephala
- Lumnitzera littorea
- Macaranga spp.
- Morinda citrifolia
- Neisosperma oppositifolium
- Pandanus cultivars
- Pandanus tectorius
- Pemphis acidula
- Pisonia grandis
- Polyscias spp.
- Premna serratifolia
- Rhizophora spp.
- Scaevola taccada
- Terminalia catappa INV
- Terminalia samoensis/littoralis
- Thespesia populnea
- Tournefortia argentea
- Vitex negundo/trifolia

 
Along rivers
- Albizia gummifera
- Albizzia lebbeck
- Alnus nepalensis
- Casuarina cunninghamiana INV
- Dalbergia sissoo
- Erythrina poeppigiana
- Faidherbia albida
- Intsia bijuga
- Tipuana tipu
- Vangueria madagascariensis

Bamboo
(Clumping)

- Bambusa balcoa (construction)
- Bambusa longispiculata (Mahal bamboo, hedge)
- Bambusa oldhami (windbreak, hedge)
- Dendrocalamus giganteus (construction, water remediation)
- Dendrocalamus strictus (manna for cooking, torches, mats, baskets, mats, musical instruments, poles, water pipes)

For sandy soils
- Acacia senegal (for sand dunes)
- Dalbergia sissoo
- Gliricidia sepium
- Pinus carribaea
- Pongamia pinnata (binds sand dunes, lightning oil, fuel)
- Prosopis glandulosa (stabilizer of desert sands)
- Prosopis juliflora (sand-dune stabilization)
- Tarchonanthus camphoratus (for sand dunes)
- Terminalia catappa INV
- Ziziphus mauritiana (for sand dunes)
- Ziziphus spina-christi

For waterlogged areas
(more in Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands)

- Eucalyptus robusta
- Sesbania sesban

For drying wet land
- Eucalyptus robusta

For saline soils
(more in Nitrogen Fixing Tree Start-up Guide)


- Gliricidia sepium
- Pongamia pinnata
- Prosopis tamarugo

Fodder - trees
(more in Nitrogen Fixing Tree Start-up Guide and Forage Tree Legumes in Tropical Agriculture)

- Albizia lebbeck
- Cajanus cajan
- Calliandra calothyrsus
- Chamaecytisus palmensis
- Flemingia macrophylla
- Leucaena leucocephala
- Prosopis spp.
- Sesbania sesban

Fast food
- Banana (Musa spp.)
- Cassava (Manihot esculenta, manioc, tapioca)
- Chaya (Cnidoscolus chayamansa, leaves must be cooked)
- Katuk (Sauropus androgynus)
- Moringa (Moringa oleifera or M. stenopetala)
- Pacific spinach (Hibiscus manihot or Hibiscus manihot)
- Papaya (Carica papaya)
- Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, gandul, dhal)
- Sissoo spinach (Alternanthera sissoo)
- Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)

Vines for ground cover
- Chayote (Sechium edule)
- Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas)
- Tropical pumpkin, butternut (Curcurbita moschata, seeds at "Seeds of Change") P

Vines for trellis
- Lablab bean (Dolicos lablab)
- Malabar (Ceylon) spinach (Basella rubra, self-seeding)
- Passionfruit (Passiflora spp.)
- Perennial lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus)
- Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus)

Vegetables
- Artichoke
- Bamboo shoots
- Cajanus cajan
- Carob
- Garlic
- Kale
- Lablab beans (Dolicos lablab)
- Marama beans
- Moth beans (Vigna aconitifolia - drought tolerant)
- Okra
- Onions
- Peppers
- Prosopis glandulosa
- Pumpkins
- Sweet potatoes
- Taro
- Tepary beans
- Tomatoes
- Winged beans (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus)
- Yam (Dioscorea spp.)

Wax
- Candelilla (Euphorbia antisyphilitica - deserts)
- Cauassu (Calathea lutea)

Gum
- Acacia senegal
- Guar (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus)

Fibers
- Jute (Corchorus capsularis)
- New Zealand flax (Phormium colensoi)
- Ramie (Boehmeria nivea)

Fuelwood
- Acacia mangium
- Acacia senegal
- Albizia gummifera
- Albizia lebbeck
- Albizia procera
- Albizia saman
- Cajanus cajan
- Calliandra calothyrsus
- Casuarina cunninghamiana
- Eucalyptus robusta
- Gliricidia sepium
- Gmelina arborea
- Harungana madagascariensis
- Leucaena diversifolia
- Leucaena leucocephala
- Olea capensis
- Pongamia pinnata
- Sesbania bispinosa
- Sesbania sesban
- Trema orientalis
- Vangueria madagascariensis

Charcoal - from coppicing
- Acacia pennatula
- Acacia senegal
- Albizia gummifera
- Albizia lebbeck
- Albizia procera
- Albizia saman
- Calliandra calothyrsus
- Eucalyptus robusta
- Gliricidia sepium
- Gmelina arborea
- Harungana madagascariensis
- Leucaena diversifolia
- Leucaena leucocephala
- Pongamia pinnata
- Sesbania sesban
- Trema orientalis
- Vangueria madagascariensis

Charcoal - fast
- Cajanus cajan
- Sesbania bispinosa

Timber
(Q - quality timber)

- Acacia mangium
- Acacia mearnsii
- Acacia senegal (tools)
- Albizia saman Q
- Bambusa balcoa (bamboo)
- Dalbergia sissoo Q (very hard)
- Dendrocalamus giganteus (bamboo)
- Grevillea robusta
- Intsia bijuga Q
- Olea capensis
- Pinus caribaea
- Pinus kesiya
- Pterocarpus indicus Q
- Vangueria madagascariensis

Bee forage
- Acacia senegal
- Albizia lebbeck (Tibet tree)
- Albizia saman (rain tree, monkeypod)
- Azadirachta indica (neem)
- Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea)
- Calliandra calothyrsus (calliandra)
- Cassia fistula
- Cassia spectabilis (golden shower tree)
- Chamaecytisus palmensis
- Citrus spp. (citrus trees)
- Cocos nucifera (coconut)
- Dalbergia sissoo
- Dalbergia sissoo (sissoo rosewood)
- Eucalyptus species (eucalyptus)
- Gliricidia sepium (madre de cacao)
- Gmelina arborea (white beech)
- Grevillea robusta (silk oak)
- Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (hibiscus)
- Inga vera (inga, ice cream bean)
- Litchi chinensis
- Macadamia integrifolia
- Mangifera indica (mango)
- Morus nigra (mulberry)
- Pimenta dioica (allspice)
- Pithecellobium dulce (Manila tamarind)
- Prosopis spp.
- Psidium guajava (guava)
- Sesbania sesban (sesban)

Ground covers
- Broad beans
- Buckwheat
- Cicer arietinum (chickpea)
- Comfrey
- Desmodium uncinatum (fodder, for growing with grasses)
- Dill
- Haifa clover
- Hairy vetch
- Lablab
- Lathyrus sativus (grass pea)
- Lupin
- Marigolds
- Mint
- Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus)
- Papago cowpea (Pisum sativum)
- Phaselous vulgaris (Pinto beans)
- Strawberries (with pines)
- Sweet potato
- Tropical pumpkins, butternut
- Vigna unguiculata (Black-eyed peas)
- White clover

Shade around the house
- Calliandra calothyrsus

Wetland plants
- Burita palm (Mauritia flexuosa)
- Chinese water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis / tuberosa - edible rhizome)
- Eelgrass (Zostera marina - cereal, mud stabilizer)
- Glyceria fluitans (edible seeds)
- Glyceria maxima (edible seeds, flour)
- Limnocharis flava
- Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)
- Phragmites communis / australis (edible shoots and leaves, basketry, matting, thatching)
- Taro (Colocasia esculenta)
- Water-chestnut (Trapa natans)
- Watercress (Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum - for clean water only)
- Water-spinach (Ipomoea aquatica, kangkong)
- Wild rice (Zizania aquatica)

Pest repellents
- Artemisia spp.
- Basil
- Bergamot (Monarda spp.)
- Chives
- Garlic
- Horseradish
- Lavender (for scorpios)
- Leeks
- Lemon balm (Melissa)
- Mint
- Onions
- Oregano
- Rosemary
- Sage
- Sweet cicely (Myrrhis odorata)
- Thyme
- Yarrow

Plants for beneficial insects
- Alfalfa
- Anise
- Arthemisia annua
- Aster
- Buckwheat
- Calendula
- Carrot
- Celery
- Chamomile
- Coriander
- Cosmos "white sensation"
- Crimson thyme
- Dandelion
- Dill
- Echinaceae spp.
- Fennel
- Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa)
- Lemon balm
- Lovage
- Marigold "lemon gem"
- Mexican sunflower (Tithonia rotundifolia)
- Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus)
- Parsley
- Parsnip
- Phacelia
- Queen Anne's lace
- Spearmint (Mentha spicata)
- Sweet cicely
- Tansy
- Wild bergamot (Bee balm, Monarda spp.)
- Yarrow
- Zinnia

Dynamic nutrients accumulators
- Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)
- Clover
- Comfrey
- Dandelion (calcium)
- Melissa officinalis
- Mentha pipperita
- Nasturtium officinale
- Nettle
- Rumex spp.(sorrel)
- Vetch

Nematodes control
- Marigolds
- Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea, mulch, fibres, green manure)

Rodents barrier
- Vetiver grass

Other useful plants
- Carob (Ceratonia siliqua - food)
- Enset (Ensete ventricosum - edible underground stems)
- Hibiscus sabdariffa (herbal teas, colourant)
- Lansium domesticum (treatment for malaria, fruit)
- Moringa oleifera (water purification, food)
- Moringa stenopetala (water purification)
- Neem (Azadirachta indica - insecticide, medicinal)
- Prunus africana (medicinal)
- Salvadora persica (toothbrush)
- Theobroma cacao

 

Reference

- Agroforestree Database - World Agroforestry Center
- Bill Mollison "Introduction to Permaculture"
- Bill Mollison "Permaculture: A Designer-s Manual"
- Jeff Nugent and Julia Boniface "Permaculture Plants"
- Robert Hart "Forest Gardening"
- Dave Jacke with Eric Toensmeier "Edible Forest Gardens"
- Rosemary Morrow "Earth User-s Guide to Permaculture"
- Chris Evans "Not Seeing the Forest for the Trees" in Permaculture Magazine
- Ben-Erik van Wyk "Food Plants of the World"
- Margaret Barwick "Tropical and Subtropical Trees - An Encyclopedia"
- Toby Hemenway "Gaia's Garden"
- Brad Lancaster "Rainwater Harvesting for Drylands"
- Sally Jean Cunningham "Great Garden Companions"
- E. Styger, J. E. M. Rakotoarimanana, R. Rabevohitra and E. C. M. Fernandes "Indigenous fruit trees of Madagascar" in Agroforestry Systems No. 46
- Daisy E. Kay "Root Crops"
- Roots and Tubers" Better Farming Series No.16, FAO
- Randolph Thaman, Craig Elevitch and Kim Wilkinson "Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry in the Pacific Islands"
- Kim Wilkinson and Craig Elevitch "Nontimber Forest Products for Pacific Islands"
- Kim Wilkinson and Craig Elevitch "Integrating Understory Crops with Tree Crops"
- Craig Elevitch and Kim Wilkinson "Introduction to Integrating Trees into Pacific Island Farm Systems"
- "Choosing Timber Species for Pacific Island Agroforestry"
- Kim Wilkinson and Craig Elevitch "Multipurpose Windbreaks"
- Craig Elevitch and Kim Wilkinson "Nitrogen Fixing Tree Start-up Guide"
- Craig Elevitch and Kim Wilkinson "Fast Food: Parts 1 and 2" in The Overstory Journal
- "A giant solution to a giant problem" World Agroforestry Center